On Finding a Solution for Writing CSS in React

Last modified
Aug 25, 2020
Time to read
5 min read

Photo by Simon Berger

Table of Contents


React makes no opinions on how developers should write CSS. The choice for how CSS should be written in our applications is ultimately on us, the developers.

I've thought a lot about the various ways we could go about writing CSS in our React projects.

The ideal CSS workflow should support

  • A design system—invaluable for making our designs look consistent and polished.
  • Productivity—our workflow should facilitate rapid development.
  • Scalable—we want to be sure our CSS strategy scales with our project in terms of performance and robustness.

So with this, let's consider the most basic starting point.


The most obvious solution to how we could write CSS in React is by writing... Well... CSS.

What's great about plain old CSS is that it is extremely portable. It is a common tongue us frontend web developers must agree upon.

We also have no problem developing a design system using CSS variables.

CSS variables are great unless you have to support IE, but that's none of my business.

Where we start to see problems with vanilla CSS is with productivity and scalability.

There is no nesting syntax with vanilla CSS so selectors can sometimes be repetitive.

.btn {
  /* regular styles */

.btn:hover {
  /* hover styles */

.btn:active {
  /* active styles */

.btn:focus {
  /* focus styles */

There is also the problem with global stylesheets becoming unwieldy as the project grows.

We want to find a solution that will make us more productive and hopefully solve issues such as scope.

To address these 2 problems, we turn to CSS Modules.

CSS Modules

One of the big selling points with CSS Modules is having the ability to have CSS scoped to a particular component, making our styling system more robust as the project grows.

/* button.module.css */
.btn {
  background-color: blue;
  color: white;
// button.jsx
import styles from './button.module.css';

function Button() {
  return <button className={styles.btn}>Click</button>;

It is also possible to add Sass support alongside CSS Modules, giving us the benefits of using Sass—arguably one of the most mature CSS preprocessors.

/* button.module.scss */
.btn {
  // regular styles

  &:hover {
    // hover styles

  &:active {
    // active styles

The problem for me comes in the form of productivity. With CSS Modules, we would need to hop back and forth between CSS and JavaScript files.

With React, we co-locate our JavaScript and HTML together in the same file, why shouldn't we also co-locate our CSS?

With this, let's consider some CSS-in-JS solutions.

CSS as Objects

The most straightforward way of writing CSS-in-JS is by using the object syntax and injecting that into the style attribute.

// Using object syntax to write styles
function Button() {
  return (
        backgroundColor: 'blue',
        color: 'white',
        padding: '5px 2px',

The design system can be handled via exporting JavaScript constants.

import styles from '@styles';

function Button() {
  return (
        backgroundColor: styles.colors.blue,
        color: styles.colors.white,
        padding: styles.padding.button,

Scoping is handled naturally because we just inject the styles inline.

One thing I'm personally not a fan of is the camelcase object syntax. If we ever decided to port the object syntax into regular CSS, then that would be a huge effort since CSS doesn't use camelcase syntax.

Let's keep considering other CSS-in-JS options.

CSS in Template Strings

Another popular way to write CSS in React is by writing CSS syntax inside of template strings.

// via styled-components documentation, linked below

const Button = styled.a`
  display: inline-block;
  border-radius: 3px;
  padding: 0.5rem 0;
  margin: 0.5rem 1rem;
  width: 11rem;
  background: transparent;
  color: white;
  border: 2px solid white;

There are several libraries that let us do this:

Admittedly, having so many options that accomplish a similar thing in a similar way makes it hard to choose one.

We may also take a small performance hit writing styles using a library like this, abeit it's probably not too significant. Nonetheless, it's something we should consider as our application grows.

At this point, we've looked at a lot of great options. However, all of the options we've looked at so far require us to develop our design system upfront. Let's see if we can find a tool that could help us in that regard as well.

Opinionated CSS Framework

Let's consider some of the more opinionated CSS frameworks such as Bootstrap or Material UI.

What's great about frameworks like this is that the design system is built-in.

This can let us be extremely productive because classes are defined that we can use to style our components quickly.

// Using Bootstrap for example
const Button = () => <button className="btn btn-primary">Click</button>;

Of course, if we use Bootstrap, we have to consider the possibility of having our site look like every other website that uses Bootstrap.

I think these frameworks are great for prototyping but may become a bottleneck as our project grows.

What if the CSS framework doesn't provide the functionality for a specific use case? We'll have to inject our own styles alongside the framework's styles. What's more, we'd need to make sure the styles we add our consistent with the design system provided by the CSS framework.

It's great that we can style our app quickly by applying classes, but let's look for a solution that gives us more granular control.

For this, we turn to Tailwind CSS.

Unopininated CSS Framework

Tailwind CSS is a JavaScript application that uses a configuration file to generate a stylesheet full of utility classes.

We can then use the generated classes like any other CSS stylesheet.

<h1 className="text-lg font-bold text-red-700">Hello</h1>

To me, Tailwind CSS fits somewhere in the middle between an opinionated CSS framework and writing CSS from scratch.

You get the benefits of being able to add classes to the HTML to apply styles quickly, but Tailwind doesn't make too many decisions about how things should look.

What's more, all of the other options (other than the opinionated CSS frameworks) required that we come up with the design system upfront. Tailwind provides that for us.

This is great because I'm not a designer.

Why not let someone who is a designer (Steve Schoger) create a design system for us?


If we're using the design system provided by Tailwind, wouldn't we have the same problem as Bootstrap? Wouldn't sites start to look like they were built with Tailwind?

Yes and no.

Yes, many Tailwind users will probably not override the default design system configuration. For instance, we'll probably see the same color palettes being used in many websites.

But unlike Bootstrap, Tailwind doesn't specify how you should apply the design system.

With Bootstrap, you would apply a btn class to a button, which would create a Bootstrap button.

With Tailwind, however, you would need to apply individual classes for padding, border-radius, background color, etc. This gives developers much more control over how the component should look.

We should have no problems with scalability because at the end of the day, Tailwind is just generating CSS. They also have a story for controlling the file size from the generated CSS.

This checks all the boxes. Tailwind provides a design system engine and a means to rapidly apply CSS rules in our components.

Tailwind CSS is not perfect though, and the approach of writing styles from utility classes is certainly controversial.

When writing Tailwind CSS, it is not uncommon to see a huge string of class names.

<button className="px-4 py-2 bg-blue-500 hover:bg-blue-600 shadow-md hover:shadow-lg ...">

Many classes on a single line admittedly can become hard to read.

One solution inspired by Tailwind Labs developer Robin Malfait is to write a simple function that joins the classes together.

function classNames(...classes) {
  return classes.filter(Boolean).join(' ');

Original source code here.

We can call this function when declaring many classes, and we can easily span large strings of classes across multiple lines in a readable way.

I like to group related CSS rules together, but do what works for you.

    'px-4 py-2',
    'bg-blue-500 hover:bg-blue-600',
    'shadow-md hover:shadow-lg'


Tailwind CSS is a great complement to React. After using Tailwind,

  • I have become more confident with my CSS skills.
  • I spend less time styling than if I were to write CSS from scratch.
  • I can utilize a design system making my styles, such as spacing and colors, consistent throughout my site.

It's probably going to be the tool I reach for to handle my CSS needs in future projects.

What is your preferred way to write CSS with React? Let me know on Twitter!

Last modified
Aug 25, 2020
Time to read
5 min read

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